Version:
Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 (RTM) – 10.50.1600.1 (X64) Apr 2 2010 15:48:46 Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation Enterprise Edition (64-bit) on Windows NT 6.1 (Build 7601: Service Pack 1)

Problem:
There is a full-text index on the table IndexTable (about 3 billion rows).
When start populating getting a lot of errors in the full text log:

2012-07-17 18:34:26.04 spid25s Error ‘0x80043630: The filter daemon process MSFTEFD timed out for an unknown reason. This may indicate a bug in a filter, wordbreaker, or protocol handler.’ occurred during full-text index population for table or indexed view ‘[TS_MageDB].[dbo].[IndexTable]’ (table or indexed view ID ‘667201477’, database ID ‘7’), full-text key value ‘1986286701’. Attempt will be made to reindex it.

This was happening during the 9 days (and haven’t been large load on the CPU and / or queuing to disk.), and full-text index has not been populated.

There is nothing helpful for me here (because of 2008 R2, not 2008) and here (just “We have therefore resolve this issue as by design”)

Resolution:
Only recreating the index helped, and, after that, populating:

DROP FULLTEXT INDEX ON [dbo].[IndexTable]
CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX ON [dbo].[IndexTable]( [IndexValue] LANGUAGE [Russian])
KEY INDEX [PK_IndexTable] ON ([FT_IndexTeble], FILEGROUP [ftfg_FT_IndexTeble])
WITH (CHANGE_TRACKING = OFF, STOPLIST = SYSTEM)

or, if we want to start populating manually later, for example, at night:

...CHANGE_TRACKING = OFF, NO POPULATION...

and for start:

ALTER FULLTEXT INDEX ON [dbo].[IndexTable] START FULL POPULATION

After a half-day process is finished, the error no longer appeared.

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